05 December 2017 - Clark Yarbrough

CRISPR/Cas9 Technology

A discussion of CRISPR/Cas9 techniques.

hello my name is Clark Yarborough my

name is jessica reyes my name is Trent Hanson and today we will be going over the history techniques and applications involved with the CRISPR cast 9 system genetic engineering is defined as the artificial manipulation modification and recombination of DNA or other nucleic acid molecules in order to modify an organism or population of organisms this is a relevant topic because at its core the CRISPR caste 9 system is a form of genetic engineering used to alter human DNA in order to create a desired self function the word CRISPR stands for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats while this sounds fairly complicated in general the technique is nothing more than a genetic version of cut and paste the reason CRISPR is so relevant is because of its ability to accurately identify problematic genes and interfere this makes CRISPR a powerful tool for editing genomes that specializes in correcting genetic defects and preventing the spread of disease Chris Berg was first discovered in 1987 by Yoshizumi Ishino of Osaka University he used a technique called meta genomics to speed up the sequencing abilities of the IAP gene

this was the first use of the CRISPR system although wouldn't get its name till later testing and application the Cassadine protein was altered by Jennifer Doudna and Emmanuelle Charpentier who used a guide RNA combined with the Cassadine protein to cleave DNA sequences and desired locations together the CRISPR caste 9 system was described in 2015 showing his promise in the fields of genetic engineering and DNA recombination here is a graph showing the amount of publications relating to CRISPR from 2011 to 2015 as you can see its popularity has grown drastically after its release double will double of the amount of studies compared to the other methods of genetic genetic modification after one here this shows how important this technology is and how it will continue to be used frequently in the future CRISPR begins by using guide RNA that corresponds to a matching DNA sequence then the cast iron protein binds and cuts to the DNA at the target site this allows the cast Line protein to alter a gene expression it can also replace the target site with foreign DNA specified

other variations of the cast iron protein perform different functions relating to DNA transcription systems what's unique about CRISPR technology is that is highly selective the protein will bind to any combination of nucleotides specified this means that CRISPR technology is highly versatile because it has the ability to target any part of the genome CRISPR interference consists of the non-reacting cast 9 protein that can suppress gene expression by blocking transcription this may be useful in developing a cure for diseases such as cancer since it can target specific genes and block their transcription scientists are identifying and targeting specific genes within an organism by using a wide scale of genome scaling they also generate disease models to study the impact of drugs in the human body recently they have successfully extracted HIV from a living organism this advancement may lead to completely eradicating this disease in a near future since this technology allows scientists to target specific genes targeting the command center of cancer that causes of normal tumor growths is now possible in

the future CRISPR technology will be used to develop treatment for blindness blood disorders such as anemia and heart disease because they are all caused by genes they will also find a method to slow the progression of Huntington's disease also with the current technological advancements a cure for cancer will be obtained and this is why CRISPR technology is a promising method thank you for listening

XML Transcript: